Northwest of Venice, this region has many things in common with Austria (it used to be part of Austria until after World War I), including gorgeous mountain ranges (including the Dolomites) and a large German-speaking population.
The Dolomites are a beautiful mountain range, the most southern part of the Alps, and offers a number of fun outdoor activities, from winter sports to summer hiking/climbing. See Hiking in the Dolomites page for more. The Dolomites have sheer rock faces that end in alpine meadows, including the large Alpe di Siusi meadow.
This southern province is mostly Italian-speaking, centered on the town of Trento.
Largest town in Trento, sometimes called "Trent" in English (you may have heard of the Council of Trent during the Renaissance).
Civezzano - just NE of Trento
Baselga di Piné - just NE of Trento
Isera (S of Trento)
Levico Terme ( just E of Trento, beautiful town overlooking Lake Levico and Caldonazzo)
Folgaria (S of Trento)
northern end of Trentino, SW of Bolzano/Bozen:
Tirol Castle - in the NW, near Texelgruppe park
Rick Steves recommends this as a home base in the South Tyrol/Dolomite region, since it's one of the few villages in the area that preserves its charm. Nearby is the Alpe di Siusi/Seiser Alm high alpline meadow; see Hiking in Dolomites for more information.
Capital of the region (check out a 5000-year old "ice man" preserved at the South Tirol Museum of Archaeology, ride a cable car to the Oberbozen resort village)hiking). The eastern edge of the Dolomites are in the Pustertal, for example the Tre Cime hike (see Hiking in the Dolomites page)
Brixen is the largest town in the Puster Valley and has a cute historic center with nice shops (although it's ringed by more modern streets/suburbs).
(E of Bressanone/Brixen, old town has beautiful castle)
Ferienhaus Graber (just W of Brunico/Bruneck in San Lorenzo di Sebato) - went for dinner in 2014, was very good
Oberraut, Località Arneto 1, 047-455-9977, closed Thurs, rec'd by Slow Food Osterie d'Italia 2014 for "breathtaking view of the valley", family-run 40-year "temple to Pustere cuisine", high-quality ingredients, including many that are raised themselves, traditional dishes with a creative twist (graukäse, stuffed zucchini, goat dumplings, lamb/herb risotto, bauergeröstel, strauben), also rents rooms
San Lorenzo di Sabato / St. Lorenzen (near Brunico/Bruneck):
***Saalerwirt Hotel & Restaurant, everything made with ingredients from their property, closed Tues (except in high season), we liked this so much in 2014 that we went twice!
...on the way to Brunico/Bruneck, in Pfalen: Ristorante Schöneck (Schoeneck), 1 Michelin star
Rasun Anterselva/Rasen Antholz (further E, 48 min) --> Eggerhöfe, closed Mon (except July/Aug) and Nov-April, rec'd Slow Food Osterie d'Italia 2014, says it's in "one of the prettiest little valleys in the Pusteria region", has nice lake, "enchanting villages and dreamy mountains". This family-run place has nice traditional dishes and rooms for rent.
Valle Aurina-Ahrntal (way up in NE corner, 1:10) --> Mösenhof rec'd by Slow Food Osterie d'Italia 2014 for "most authentic and simple Pustere hospitality", traditional, seasonal dishes (schlutzer, knödel, graukäsesuppe [grey cheese/onion soup], gulasch, gibochns, kaiserschmar), closed Wed, also rents rooms. Hikes nearby: http://www.mapmyhike.com/it/valle-aurina-ahrntal-trentino-alto-adige/Hiking in the Dolomites for more)
Vipiteno/Sterzing (NW of Bressanone/Brixen, not far from the Brenner (or Brennero) pass into Austria)