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Outside of the Naples/Campania region, Italy offers 20 distinct regions (regione) with wide range of travel options—some are even close enough for a day trip (such as Rome). Here is information about some of these regions:
The "green heart of Italy" contains hundreds of picturesque hill towns, including Orvieto and Assisi. Also home to Perugia, site of the famous Chocolate Festival.
Home to ancient cities such as Florence, Siena, and Pisa, Tuscany is full of medieval and renaissance history and art. Also home to beautiful hill towns and the famous wine producing regions of Chianti and Montalcino (Brunello).
These three regions constitute most of the Adriatic (Eastern) Italian coast. Abruzzo, a mountanous region just northeast of Lazio, contains the charming city of L'Aquila (which was hit by an earthquake and hosted the G8 in 2009) and the beautiful Gran Sasso National Park (the highest point in Italy outside of the Alps). Molise has similar scenery and climate to Abruzzo and is the site of the San Vincenzo Abbey service project. Le Marche is one of the least-touristy regions of Italy, but features draws such as hill towns just as nice as those in Tuscany or Umbria (Urbino is the most famous but there are many others), beaches on the Adriatic coast, and the Black Madonna of Loreto.
Home to the ancient port town of Genoa (Genova in Italian, birthplace of Christopher Columbus), this region has beautiful beaches, pesto sauce, and the famous five towns of the Cinque Terre.
Veneto is famous for the sinking canal city of Venice, along with various other towns such as Verona (the setting for Romeo and Juliet) and Padua (home of Giotto frescoes, St. Anthony of Padua, and setting for The Taming of the Shrew).
Anchored by the university town of Bologna, this region is a draw for food lovers, as it produces balsamic vinegar (in Modena), parmigiano reggiano cheese (in Parma), and of course bolgona sausage (actually prosciutto). Also surrounds the tiny mountaintop nation of San Marino.
These three regions form the heel, toe, and instep, respectively, of Italy's "boot." While historically poor, they are rich in culture, food, and sights...and are often much warmer (metaphorically and physically) than the north. Relatively untraveled by non-Italians, here you can find excellent wines, beautiful beaches, and cultural wonders.
Home to US Navy Base Sigonella, this island features spicy cuisine, ancient ruins, a mix of cultures, beautiful scenery, and an active volcano (Mount Etna).
Home to Milan (Milano), Italy's most important business center, as well as beautiful countryside including the Lake District.
A mostly German-speaking area that hardly feels like Italy, although most people speak fluent (if accented) Italian and you can still find great gelato. Gorgeous hiking in the Dolomite mountain range.